VR Tour For Std. 9 Ch. 4. Structure of The Atom
What's Included in Virtual tour of this chapter
The atom consists of 3 tiny particles: Positively charged Protons, Negatively charged electrons, Neutral neutrons. The nucleus contains positive protons and electrons revolving around in fixed orbitals. Valency is the capacity of an atom to combine with atoms of other elements to form a compound. An isotope of a chemical element is an atom that has a different number of neutrons than the standard for that element.
Virtual tour 1: The Structure of an Atom
Different types of matters exist in the world. The atom is the basic building block for all matters. In the center part of the atom, there are two types of particles called protons and neutrons. This center is called the nucleus of the atom. The atomic mass and atomic number are dependent on the number of protons and neutrons.
Virtual tour 2: Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr’s model of the atom
In this virtual tour, we will learn about the three legendary scientists who have given the study about the structure of atoms. Scientist J.J Thomson invented the plum pudding model wherein the atom looked more like the resembled spherical pudding with plums distributed inside. We will also learn how Physicist Ernest Rutherford put forward three hypotheses regarding the structure of the atoms which contradicted the theory established by Thomson. Neils Bohr put forward some postulates. We will learn about all theories in detail in this virtual tour.
Virtual tour 3: Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
An atom consists of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. In this virtual tour, we will understand the atomic number which is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. And, Atomic mass is the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus through examples.
Virtual tour 4: Electronic Configuration of elements
In the atoms, electrons are distributed into different orbits. It’s known as the electronic configuration of elements. The maximum number of electrons present in a shell is given by the formula 2 n square, where ‘n’ is the orbit number or energy level index, 1,2,3, and so on.
Virtual tour 5: Valency of the electron
The electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom are known as the valence electrons. Valency is the capacity of an atom to combine with atoms of other elements to form a compound. Atoms of metals that tend to donate electrons, Valency can be calculated as the number of valence electrons in the atom. Atoms of nonmetals who tend to accept electrons, Valency can be calculated as the 8 minus number of valence electrons in the atom. The valency for noble gases is zero.
Virtual tour 6: Noble gases
Noble gases are those elements that lie in the eighteenth column of the periodic table. The elements are Helium H E, neon N E, argon A R, Krypton K R, Xenon X E, Radon R N, and oganesson OG. Noble gases are typically highly unreactive except when under particular extreme conditions. They have full outer shells which result in zero valence electrons.
Virtual tour 7: Isotopes and Isobars
In this virtual tour, we will understand what Isotopes are. Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons and electrons but different numbers of neutrons. Isobars are atoms of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons.