## VR Tour For Std. 10 Ch. 12. Electricity

#### What's Included in Virtual tour of this chapter

Electric current is defined as the rate of flow of negative charges of the conductor. The SI unit of the electric current is ampere (A). And, Work done per unit charge in taking charge from one point to another is known as Potential Difference. The unit of potential difference is volt (V). We will learn about ohm’s law and the relation between V and I. Resistance is defined as the property of a conductor to resist the flow of charges passing through it. The resistance of the conductor is numerically given as the ratio of potential difference across its length to the current flowing through it. We will also learn about the value of current when a number of resistors are connected in series and parallel in a circuit and its equivalent resistance.

#### Virtual tour 1: What is current?

We will understand that A stream of electrons moving through a conductor constitutes an electric current. Conventionally, the direction of current is taken opposite to the direction of the flow of electrons. To set the electrons in motion in an electric circuit, we use a cell or a battery. A cell generates a potential difference across its terminals. And also understand some symbols of an electric circuit.

#### Virtual tour 2: OHM’s law

Ohm’s law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. This means that increasing the voltage will cause the current to increase.

#### Virtual tour 3: Relation between R&I for constant V with different electric material

We will understand that the current is different for different resistant. Certain components offer an easy path for the flow of electric current while the others resist the flow. We know that the motion of electrons in an electric circuit constitutes an electric current. The electrons, however, are not completely free to move within a conductor. They are restrained by the attraction of the atoms among which they move. Thus, the motion of electrons through a conductor is retarded by its resistance.

#### Virtual tour 4: Resistivity

The resistance of a conductor governs the magnitude of the current. The resistance of the conductor is directly proportional to length, inversely proportional to the cross-section area, and the nature of its material.

#### Virtual tour 5: Resistance of a system of resistor

In this virtual tour, we will study the Series Connection of Resistors and Parallel Connection of Resistors. The total resistance of the series circuit is R = R1 + R2 + R3 and The total resistance of parallel circuit is 1/ R = 1 /R1 +1/ R2 +1 /R3.

#### Virtual tour 6: Resistors in series

In a series of combinations of resistors, the current is the same in every part of the circuit or the same current through each resistor. And when several resistors are joined in series, the resistance of the combination Rs equals the sum of their individual resistances.

#### Virtual tour 7: Resistors in Parallel

In this virtual tour, we will learn about the value of current when a number of resistors are connected in parallel in a circuit and its equivalent resistance. The reciprocal of the equivalent resistance of a group of resistances joined in parallel is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistances.

#### Virtual tour 8: Heating Effect of electric current

When an electric current passes through a high resistance wire, the wire becomes and produces heat. This is called the heating effect of current. This phenomenon occurs because electrical energy gets transformed into heat energy when the current flows through a wire of some resistance.